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When thinking about learning, it is helpful to draw on some ‘metaphors of learning’. In this module, we have organised these into three metaphors of learning. Identify the correct set of three metaphors below:
We recognise that natural resource management (NRM) issues are _______, _______, and ________. Therefore, it is important to develop educational responses that recognise these complexities, create opportunities for deliberation, are context-sensitive, and allow for open-ended learning experiences.
One of the case scenarios presented in Topic 3.1 is about the ‘Recycling Reader’. In this scenario, we learn that a common assumption in behaviourist theories of learning that “behaviour change follows changes in attitudes, which in turn follows awareness” often does not hold true. Which of the following chain of events best represents the relationship between these concepts as illustrated in in the ‘Recycling Reader’ scenario (Scenario 2):
One of the theories of learning you encountered in Topic 3.1 is communities of practice: “Lave and Wenger (1991) studied how learning happens through apprenticeship, and came up with the theory of learning in communities of practice. They saw a community of practice as a collective created over time by the pursuit of a shared enterprise (like recycling, or conservation agriculture). As we pursue different enterprises, we interact with each other and the world, and we adapt our relations to each other and to the world. We learn by doing – through action, interaction, reflection, communication and negotiation – and by interacting with each other in the doing, in place”
Communities of practice theory draws and builds on another learning theory, which is this?
In this topic, you read that social learning includes engaging with dissonance, conflict and tensions, and requires open-ended solutions rather than predetermined behavioural objectives. This means we may need to recognize messy social processes as part of a learning process. But even if learning processes are to remain open ended and unpredictable, we recommend four principles to guide process planning. These are: